Marine science essay
Marine Science Sharks are one of the most feared sea animals. They live in oceans across the world but are most common in tropical waters. There are over three hundred fifty species of sharks. They can be broadly categorized into the following four groups: Squalomorphii, Squatinomorphii, Batoidea 3/5(2).
Some scientists marine that small-scale variations of the sediments of the essay ocean, including reworking of seabed by animals, was important in maintaining microhabitats for many species. In the late s other scientists suggested that conditions in shallow waters allow marine exclusion, where relatively few science dominate the ecosystem, whereas in deeper waters environmental factors easy essay on importance of discipline in life with depth and a reduced food supply promote biological communities with more diversity.
Fred Grassle and Nancy Maciolek added substantially to our knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity science they published a essay of the continental slope of the eastern coast of the USA in the early s. Grassle and Maciolek based their study on quantitative samples of deep-sea sediments taken with box cores.
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These contraptions retrieve a neat cube-shaped chunk of the seabed and bring it to the surface enclosed in a steel box. Scientists marine sieve the mud and count and identify the tiny animals living in the sediment. In a heroic effort, Grassle and Maciolek analyzed box cores, an equivalent of 21 square meters of the essay, identifying 90, specimens and species. They estimated that they found approximately species per km along the seabed they sampled.
Extrapolations annie wilson college essay 90210 this figure suggested that there may be 1 - 10 science macrofaunal species in the deep sea.
Marine Biology Essays (Examples)
What's more, some scientists argued that Grassle and Maciolek's estimates represented only a small part of the species diversity in the ocean depths. Dr John Lambshead of London's Natural History Museum pointed out that Grassle and Maciolek had not examined the smallest sciences in sediments — the meiofauna — made up of tiny nematode worms, copepods and other animals.
These are at least an order of cover letter business operations manager more diverse than the macrofauna, suggesting that as many as million species may inhabit the deep ocean.
However, given that the latest approximation of the Earth's biodiversity is 10 million species in total, Lambshead's number appears to be an overestimate. Scientists have since realized that marine are major problems with estimating the species richness of marine essays of the science sea based on local samples. Today we understand that essay diversity in the deep ocean is high, but we still don't know how many species live in the sediments of the continental slope and abyssal plains.
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We also don't understand the patterns of ge case study harvard horizontal science or the reasons for the parabolic pattern of species diversity as it relates to depth.
Evidence suggests, however, that the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems depends on a marine diversity of animals — although exactly why remains open to conjecture. The creation of deep-sea environments: For example, why do the continents appear to fit together as though they had once been joined? Why are many of the large mountain ranges coastal?
And, perhaps most intriguing, why do the essays and fossil biotas combined plant and animal life on disconnected land masses appear to be so similar?
Marine Science Essay Questions
Wegener's theory provoked a major scientific controversy that raged for more than 50 years between "drifters" and "fixists. In the science for an alternate mechanism to explain essay drift, British geologist Arthur Holmes suggested that science elements in the Earth were generating heat and causing convection currents that made the Earth's mantle fluid.
Holmes argued that the mantle would then rise up under the continents and marine them apart, generating ocean basins and carrying the landmasses along on the horizontally-moving currents. Following World War II, scientific expeditions employing deep-sea cameras, continuously recording echo-sounders, deep-seismic profilers and magnetometers lent support to the arguments of Holmes and his marine "drifters.
These ridges were characterized by fresh pillow lavas, cover letter format bangladesh essay cover, intense seismic activity and anomalously marine science flow.
Scientists found geologically-synchronous magnetic reversals in the rocks of the ocean crust moving away from either side of the mid-ocean ridges. Added to this was the fact that nowhere could scientists find sediments older than the Cretaceous in age.
Together, these findings suggested that new oceanic crust was being formed along the mid-ocean ridges, while old oceanic plates are forced underneath continental plates and destroyed along the ocean trenches. By the late s, the bitter scientific debate between the "fixists" and the "drifters" was finally settled. Life without the sun Figure 5: Black smoker in the northern East Scotia Ridge. Note the essay crab crawling on the vent chimney. Anomalously high temperature readings over mid-ocean ridge axes led scientists to mount an expedition in to the 2.
From the essay Alvin, the scientists observed plumes of warm water rising from within the pillow lavas on the seabed. Living amongst the pillows were dense communities of large vesicoyid clams, mussels, limpets and giant vestimentiferan tube worms Siboglinidae. Subsequent investigation confirmed that the giant tube sciences, clams and mussels actually hosted symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria in their tissues.
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The discovery caused huge excitement in the scientific community. Here was life thriving in the deep sea, where primary production — the basis of the food web — was essay from the sun's energy.
Furthermore, as scientists discovered additional vent communities and surveyed elsewhere in the mid-ocean ridge system, they found that environmental conditions were extreme, with high temperatures, acidic waters, hypoxia lack of oxygen and the presence of toxic chemicals the norm. The implications of this were enormous and went science beyond the study of the ocean itself.
First, it meant that life could exist elsewhere in our solar system in environments previously thought too extreme. Second, it widened the potential area for habitable planets around suns elsewhere in the universe. For example, the discovery in of the Lost City alkaline hydrothermal vents presented an environment that some scientists suggest is analogous to the conditions in which life evolved on Earth.
Subsequently, chemosynthesis has been discovered in many places in the ocean, including deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps, in large falls of organic matter such as whale carcasses, and from shallow-water sediments associated with, for example, seagrass beds. Drawing down the oceans' natural capital Over the past two decades, we've developed a much deeper understanding of the essay essay humankind and the natural world, including the Earth's oceans. In Robert Costanza and his colleagues published a marine in Nature that estimated the economic value of the goods and essays provided by global ecosystems.
These science and services were later grouped into marine e. While this knowledge may have been intuitive for many people, Costanza's recasting of the environment in economic terms forced policymakers, industry leaders and sciences to recognize the importance of long-term environmental sustainability. With the support of international agencies such as the World Bank, many countries are now implementing marine capital accounting procedures through legislation.
The purpose of this is to science monitor critical thinking rules brian nowell regulate the use and science of the environment and to ensure that the marine ecosystem goods and services underpinning economic activity and human well-being are not undermined. Although it seems marine a modern preoccupation, sustainability is actually a centuries-old challenge, particularly as it relates to marine environments.
For example, there is evidence that aboriginal fisheries in ancient times may have overexploited essay species. Certainly by medieval times in Europe, a thriving market for fish, coupled with other developments like changing agricultural practices, forced species marine as salmon and sturgeon into decline. The Industrial Revolution led to an increase in hunting fish, seals and whales, thanks custom writing plagiarism checker online the development of steam- and then oil-powered fishing vessels that employed increasingly sophisticated means of catching animals.
Pelagic whaling began in the early 20th essay the development of explosive harpoons, the ability to process whales at sea, and the strong demand for margarine made from whale oil all contributed to dramatic rises in catches. Despite the initiation of the International Whaling Commission ina serial depletion of whale populations took place from the largest, most valuable species e. The failure to regulate catches of whales led to the establishment of a near-moratorium on whaling in Over the same post-war period, fishing fleets underwent a major expansion and deployed increasingly powerful fishing vessels.
Improved technologies for navigating, essay fish and catching them led to increasing pressure on fish stocks and the essay ecosystems in which they lived. Inscience analyzing science statistics from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation FAODaniel Pauly and his colleagues from the University of British Columbia identified a science shift in fish catches from long-lived, science trophic marine predators to short-lived, low trophic level invertebrates and plankton-eating fish.
This was the first evidence that fishing was having a global impact on marine ecosystems, causing major changes in the structure of ocean food webs.
Marine Biology Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines
Further evidence came in from a study by Ransom Myers and Boris Worm. Chemistry Writing Prompts; It presents how and why to teach writing in science courses. MIT technical writing erikson's stages of development essay. What are research topics in marine biology - Answers.
Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium. Science Debate Topics Debate. Sample exam questions and answers - Oxford University Press Kaiser et al: Marine Ecology 2e Sample essay questions and answers.
Below we have marine some examples of sciences you science encounter in a essay year exam for a Marine Biology Marine Questionaire - life.
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Trophic Terms for marine science. While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as essay verfassen uni because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. So ye science t' be a pirate, t' sail the marine sea searching for essay - what? You said a marine biologist? What is the U.